Electron microscopic radioautographic study on mitochondrial DNA synthesis in adrenal medullary cells of developing and aging mice
1. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1793-1802 (2009)
Electron microscopic radioautographic study on mitochondrial DNA synthesis in adrenal medullary cells of developing and aging mice
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, 390-8621, Japan and Department of Anatomy, Shinshu Institute of Alternative Medicine, Nagano, 380-0816, Japan.
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: In order to study the aging changes of intramitochondrial DNA synthesis of mouse adrenal cells, 8 groups of developing mice, each consisting of 3 animals, total 24, from fetal day 19 to postnatal newborn at day 1, 3, 9, 14, adult at month 1, 2 and 6, were injected with 3H-thymidine, sacrificed 1 hr later and the liver tissues were fixed and processed for electron microscopic radioautography. On electron microscopic radioautograms obtained from each animal, number of mitochondria and the mitochondrial labeling index labeled with 3H-thymidine showing DNA synthesis in each adrenalin cell and noradrenalin cell, in the medulla, were counted and the results in respective developing groups were compared respectively. From the results, it was demonstrated that the numbers of mitochondria both adrenalin and noradrenalin cells in the adrenal medullae of mice at various ages increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 6 due to development and aging of animals, respectively, while the number of labeled mitochondria and the labeling indices of intramitochondrial DNA syntheses incorporating 3H-thymidine increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal day 14 (2 weeks), reaching the maxima, and decreased till month 6. It was shown that the activity of intramitochnodrial DNA synthesis in the adrenal medullary cells in developing and aging mice increased and decreased due to aging of animals.
Key words: Mitochondria, Adrenal medulla, EM radioautography, DNA synthesis
2. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1803-1810 (2009)
Superiority of herbal and natural antioxidants mix therapy over their individual applications in methylmercury stressed chick: 1. Curcumin, vitamin B complex and glutathione combinations
Sood, P.P., Joshi, R., Gupte, K., Vekariya, V., Vekaria, P., Delvadiya, C., Ankola, P., Barchha, S., Manvar, R., Kundu, R.S., Joshi, K.K. and Shah, A.
Department of Biochemistry , Saurshtra University, Rajkot 360 005, India. E. mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Considering that none of the therapies used so far has completely recovered the toxic effect of methylmercury as screen by biochemical, histopathological or ultrastructural param-eters, the present study is an attempt to monitor the combined effect of herbal and inherent antioxidant therapy. Newly born chicks were taken as experimental animals. Eight to nine days old chicks procured and divided into 5 groups (n 9). They were reared under hygienic conditions. The animals were supplied with standard poultry food and water ad libitum. The animals of first group were kept as control and supplied with vehicle only. Rest of the animals of groups 2 to 4 were injected with a daily dose of 1 mg/kg of methylmercury chloride for 7 days. From 8th day on words they were treated separately. Group 2 animals were kept as such for another 7 days. Group 3 animals were given daily dose of curcumin (100 mg/kg orally) for another 7 days. Group 4 animals were given daily, from 8 to 15 days, curcumin (100 mg/kg orally) and after half an hour vitamin B complex injection (20 mg/kg). The 5th group was treated as group 4 along with another injection of glutathione (50 mg/kg) after half an hour gap. On 15th day the animals were scarifies and blood was collected. Thereafter, brain, liver, kidney of all animals were separated, washed, dried with blotting paper and weighed. All the tissues were analyzed for malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Study shows (1), inhibitions of both the enzymes and decrease in total glutathione and simultaneously increase of malondialdehyde demonstrating increase of oxidative stress in MMC intoxicated animals (2), therapeutic agents reverted the toxic effect by increasing all the parameters and (3), the 5th group (mixed therapy of 3 components) exhibited the best therapeutic group demonstrating that mix therapy is superior and quite advantageous.
Key words: Oxidative stress, Methylmercury, Curcumin, Vitamin B complex, Glutathione
3. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1811-1815 (2009)
Protective effect of Jasminum grandiflorum flower extract on cell surface abnormalities during DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis
Manoharan, S., Kolanjiappan, K., Suresh, K., Vasudevan, K., Balakrishnan, S. and Pugalendhi, P.
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India. E. mail: firstname.lastname@example.org<
Abstract: Our aim was to investigate the protective effect of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum flowers (JgEFet) on cell surface integrity by measuring the status of lipids and glycoconjugates during DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary tumours were developed by a single subcutaneous injection of 25 mg DMBA in 1 mL emulsion of sunflower oil and physiological saline. The levels of glycoproteins and lipids were significantly altered in tumour bearing rats as compared to control rats. Oral administration of JgEFet at a dose of 300mg/Kg b.w to DMBA treated rats brought back the status of lipids and glycoconjugates to near normal range. Our results suggest that JgEFet significantly protected the cell surface and membrane abnormalities during DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.
Key words: Jasminum grandiflorum, Breast cancer
4. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1817-1820 (2009)
Assay of antibacterial activity of Polyalthia longifolia Benth. and Hook. leaf extracts
Jain, T. and Sharma, K.
Microbial Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, University College of Science, M. L. Sukhadia
University, Udaipur 313001. E. mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Polyalthia longifolia Benth. & Hook. leaf extracts were evaluated against six medically important bacteria viz. Escherichia coli (Gram-ve), Bacillus subtilis (Gram +ve), Salmonella typhi (Gram -ve), Proteus mirabilis (Gram -ve), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram -ve) and Klebsiella sp. (Gram -ve). The dried and powdered leaves were successively extracted with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water using soxhlet assembly. The antibacterial activity assay was done by both agar well diffusion and serial dilution methods. Petroleum ether extract of leaves showed highest activity against all tested bacteria. The inhibitory effect is very identical in magnitude and comparable with that of standard antibiotics used.
Key words: Antibacterial, Polyalthia longifolia, Leaf extract
5. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1821-1826 (2009)
Reduction of chromium (vi) by bacterial strain KK15 isolated from contaminated soil
Mistry, K., Desai, C. and Patel, K.
Ashok and Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Study and Research in Biotechnology and Allied sciences
(ARIBAS), New Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 121. E. mail: firstname.lastname@example.org<
Abstract: A chromium resistant bacterial strain KK15 was isolated from chromium contaminated soil. On the basis of different morphological, biochemical characteristics the strain KK15 was identified as Pseudomonas olevorans. Hexavalent chromium resistance of the strain showed that it could tolerate very high concentration of K2CrO4 in nutrient agar medium. Assay with resting cells, permeabilized cells and crude cell free extracts demonstrated that the hexavalent chromium reduction is mainly associated with the soluble fraction of cell. The strain has a great potential for bioremediation of Cr(VI) containing waste. This approach permits selection of bacterial strains, which could be used for specific environmental clean up operation.
Key words: Bioremediation, Pseudomonas olevorans, Hexavalent chromium reduction.
6. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1827-1830 (2009)
The protective action of Dolichous biflorus L. in fructose fed albino rats
Senthil, E. and Malarvili, T.
Department of Biotechnology, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003. 1Department of Biochemistry, J. J. College of Arts and Science, Pudukkottai 622404,Tamilnadu. E. mail: email@example.com
Abstract: High fructose diet is more susceptible to peroxidative damage as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive species. The rats were fed high fructose (50%) diet for 45 days. The level of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly lower in fructose-fed rats. Along with this, the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as Vitamin-E and reduced glutathione were also decreased. The rats fed with Dolichous biflorus (10%) alone and supplementation in diet to maintain the alterations caused by high fructose-fed rats. These results suggest that Dolichous biflorus exerts a enhancing the antioxidants potential, probably due to its biochemical ingredients.
Key words: Fructose diet, Dolichous biflorus, Antioxidants.
7. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1831-1838 (2009)
Studies of Daphnia ambigua and Simocephalus vetulus based on scanning electron micrographic observations
Sharma, V., Sharma, M. S., Bhatnagar, C. and Sharma, R.
Limnology and Fisheries Laboratory, Department of Zoology, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313 005. E. mail: Madhu_limnology@yahoo.co.in
Abstract: Daphnia ambigua and Simocephalus vetulus were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope to know the external taxonomic features which play a key role in identification. The head, carapace, antenna, antennule, thoracic appendages, post abdomen, claw and tail were studied for identification at species and sub-species level.
Key words: Daphnia ambigua, Simocephalus vetulus, SEM
8. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1839-1844 (2009)
Evaluation of in vitro responses from different explants of Averrhoa carambola L.
Koli, S.P., Patil, D.A., Patil, A.G. and Narash Chandra
Department of Botany (Herbal Sciences), Birla College, Kalyan 421304,
E. mail: firstname.lastname@example.org<
Abstract: The in vitro culture studies with Averrhoa carambola L. indicated that the different explants viz. cotyledon, hypocotyl, axillary bud and radicle obtained from in vitro grown seedling showed variable responses on Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Gamborg (B5) media supplemented with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). MS and B5 media fortified with 2, 4-D (0.5–2.5 mg/l) showed good callus formation with increase in concentration of 2, 4-D. Radicle inoculated on MS medium fortified with 2, 4-D (1.0–2.5 mg/l) showed indirect rhizogenesis. However, cotyledon and radicle inoculated on B5 medium fortified with 2, 4-D (0.5–1.0 mg/l and 0.5–1.5 mg/l respectively) showed indirect rhizogenesis. Callus obtained from the hypocotyl and cotyledon was subcultured on MS and B5 media fortified with different concentrations of BAP and NAA showed greening of callus. Multiple shoots and adventitious shoot bud were obtained from various explants inoculated on ½ MS medium fortified with BAP (0.2–1.0 mg/l) except from cotyledon supplemented with BAP (0.2 mg/l). Maximum number of shoots were obtained from axillary bud inoculated on ½ Macro MS supplemented with BAP (0.4 mg/l and 0.6 mg/l).
Key words: Averrhoa carambola L., Seedling, Callus, Multiple shoots.
9. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1845-1848 (2009)
Lactate dehydrogenase studies on the testis of sialoadenectomised mouse receiving isoproterenol
Walvekar, M.V., Pillai, M.M., Methe, K.N. and Bhopale, L.P.
Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, E. mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Male albino mice (Mus musculus) of the age 1 month and weight (9 to 15 gms) were selected for the present work. Animals, subjected to sublingulectomy and sialoadenectomy, were divided into six groups. Group-I (control), Group-II (sublingulectomised), Group-III (sialoadenectomised), Group-IV (sialoadenectomised submandibular gland extract administered), Group-V (isoproterenol administered), Group-VI (sialoadenectomised isoproterenol administered). The animals were kept for two months. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and testis were removed and used for the estimation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by biochemical and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods. Study shows LDH activity in testes of groups II and III was decreased significantly as compared to group I, but increased significantly in Group IV as compared to group III. Study reveals significantly increased activity in group V, but not in group VI as compared to group III. Electrophoretic separation of LDH in the testis of normal mice showed six clear bands i.e. LDH-I, II, III, IV, V, and LDH-X. In sublingulectomised, sialoadenectomised, sialoadenectomised submandibular gland extract administered mice LDH-X was missing. Intense activity was observed for LDH-X in the control mice receiving isoproterenol but not in the sialoadenectomised mice receiving isoproterenol.
Key words: Sublingulectomy, Sialoadenectomy, Lactate dehydrogenase.
10. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1849-1850 (2009)
Lipase activity in the fat body of developing larva of Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee)
Gejage, R. M. and Awate Manisha, R. A.
Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004. E. mail: manisha.r.awate@ gmail.com
Abstract: The brinjal fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee) is an important pest of eggplant in South Asia. Properties and activity of triacylglycerol lipase from the fat body of an insect, L. orbonalis have been studied. The larval fat body lipase revealed optimum pH 7.9, incubation time 30 minutes, temperature 37 0C, enzyme concentration 1 % and substrate concentration 5 %. The gradual increase in fat body lipase activity was observed from 6-day old larvae to 8-day old larvae and gradual fall from 8-day old larvae to 11-day old larvae. The maximum lipase activity was observed in 8- day old larvae. The physiological role of lipase in the fat body during larval development of L. orbonalis has been reported in the present paper.
Key words: Triacylglycerol lipase, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee)
11. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1851-1853 (2009)
Prevalence distribution of cutaneous and mucosal lesions in renal transplant patients
Nilforoushzadeh, M.A., Shoshtari, M.M.F., Jaffary, F., Siadat, A.H. and Zolfaghari Baghbaderani, A.
Skin Diseases and Lesihmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
and Center for Research in Dermatology and Leprosy, Tehran University/Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. E. mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Renal transplantation is regarded as the treatment of choice for patients with renal failure. Our objective in this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical spectrum of skin diseases in renal transplant patients. One hundred and seventeen renal transplantation patients were examined at the Renal Transplantation Center in Noor and Ali Asghar Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. A complete examination of the skin was performed in each patient by a dermatologist. Biopsies were performed from all suspected malignant and premalignant lesions or lesions without definite clinical diagnosis. Hypertyrichosis was the most often complication and was observed in 73% of the patients. Other cutaneous lesions included acne, folliculitis, gingival hyperplasia, wart and herpes simplex. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and Kaposi sarcoma were found in 3 and 1 patients respectivily. The prevalence of cutaneous lesions except tumors was similar to the other studies that highlights the importance of periodical examinations in these patients. The lower incidence of tumors is possibly due to shorter period of follow up in the current study.
Key words: Renal transplantation, Skin complication
12. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1855-1858 (2009)
Early measurement of thrombus precursor protein (TPP) in the third trimester as a predictor of preeclampsia
Mehrabian, F. and Rezaei, A.
Department of Immunology, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran. E. mail: Mehrabian @med.mui.ac.ir
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate thrombus precursor protein (TpP) levels in order to be able to use it as predictor of preeclampsia in women with positive roll over test. In 472 pregnant women who received prenatal care roll over test was done at 28-30 weeks of gestation. 10 ml of venous blood in sodium citrate was taken and plasma was separated. TpP levels measured using ELISA method according to manufacturer’s procedure (American biogenetic sciences Inc). Mean serum TpP levels were higher in subjects who developed preeclampsia (11.53 4.3 μg/ml) as compared with subjects with out preeclampsia (7.2 5.9). A statistically significant difference (student t test P < 0.023) is considered. In women with positive roll over test who developed preeclampsia serum TpP levels were higher prior to preeclampsia onset and predictive of preeclampsia. However, larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Key words: Thrombus precursor protein, Preeclampsia
13. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1859-1864 (2009)
Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice
Kshirsagar, A., Purnima, A., Ingawale, D., Vyawahare, N., Ingale, K . and Hadambar, A.
Department of Pharmacology, K.L.E.S’s College of Pharmacy, Rajajinagar, Bangalore-560010
E. mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers (CGFE) was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in mice. The CGFE (250 mg/kg bw and 500 mg/kg, bw p.o.) showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the serum markers for liver damage. Paracetamol induced a significant rise in aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Treatment of mice with CGFE (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased serum marker enzymes levels to near normal against paracetamol treated mice. The activity of the CGFE was comparable to the standard drug, silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.), the histopathological studies supports the above finding. Results indicate that C. gigantea possesses hepatoprotective effect on paracetmol -induced hepatotoxicity in mice.
Key words: Calotropis gigantea, Antioxidant,Paracetamol and Hepatotoxicity.
14. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1865-1868 (2009)
Haemolytic activity of some pathogenic bacteria in mammals
Bodade, R.G., Khobragade, C.N., Borkar, P.S., and Manwatkar, R.N.
School of Life Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded 431606.
E. mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Haemolytic activity of pathogenic bacteria viz. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella boydii, Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae was studied using blood agar at variable time period, temperatures, pH and cell age. S. dysenteriae revealed optimum haemolysin activity on blood agar of goat, human, buffalo, ox and rabbit as compared to other test organisms. At the temperature 37 0C, pH 7.0 and bacteria incubated for 16-18 h showed optimum haemolysin activity. Cell bound haemolysin activity was observed in S. pyogenes, S. aureus, S. flexneri, while cell free haemolysin activity was recorded in S. boydii and S. dysenteriae.
Key words: Haemolytic activity, Mammals, Pathogenic organisms
15. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1869-1873 (2009)
Histopathological studies of the effect of Naga parpam, a zinc based drug of Siddha medicine, in rats
Ilango, B., Dawood Sharief, S., Vinoth Kumar, K., Rajkumar, R., Prathiba, D. and Sukumar, E.
School of Environmental Sciences, Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, The New College, Chennai – 600 014. E. mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Siddha medicine, one of the oldest traditional medical systems of India, uses metals and minerals as drugs extensively in addition to plants and animal products to treat several diseases. Naga Parpam (NP), a metallic preparation containing zinc as the major constituent and used in treatment of piles, tuberculosis and dysentery, has been chosen for assessing its effect on the tissues of vital organs in rats. The drug was administrated orally in doses of 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight to the animals for 15, 30 and 60 consecutive days. The results revealed that in 15 day treatment, liver and kidney had normal histology with no marked changes in the tissue architecture. In 30 day study, the kidney tissues remained normal while the liver tissues exhibited a few apoptotic cells with mild focal and lobular inflammation. On 60 day treatment, liver showed mild lobular inflammation and apoptotic cells were found in all doses. However brain, kidney and testis remained normal even in higher doses. The results suggest that NP does not show any toxicity in short term administration which is advocated in Siddha literature for all metal based drugs.
Key words: Naga Parpam, Siddha medicine, Histopathology
16. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1875-1878 (2009)
Inhibition of acyl homoserine lactone mediated biofilm formation in Burkholdria cepacia isolated from Albizzia lebbeck
Satish Kumar, R., Rajalakshmi, G. and Karthikyein, J.
Department of Biotechnology, D. G. Vaishnav College, Arrumbakam, Chennai 600 106.
E. mail: firstname.lastname@example.org<
Abstract: N-Acylhomoserine lactones, known as autoinducers, are widely conserved signal molecules present in quorum-sensing systems of many Gram-negative bacteria. Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic human pathogen that can aggressively colonize the cystic fibrosis lung. The CepR and CepI proteins in this organism constitute a global regulatory system, controlling expression of at least 40 genes, including those controlling swarming motility and biofilm formation. In this study, we report a Burkholdria cepacia isolate from a plant named Albizzia lebbeck capable of forming biofilm by acyl-homoserine lactone mediated gene expression. The biofilm formation by this isolate was consistent in 24-well microtiter plate but gradually declined when the culture was allowed to grow with increasing concentration of partially purified intracellular enzyme extracted from a Bacillus sps, which carried the aiiA gene, responsible for quorum sensing inhibition.
Key words: Burkholdria cepacia, Biofilm, Quorum sensing, Albizzia lebbeck.
17. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1879-1882 (2009)
Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Adansonia digitata L. on alloxan induced diabetic rats
Bhargav, B., Rupal, A.V., Reddy, A. S. and Narasimhacharya, A.V.R.L.
Department of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat,
E. mail: email@example.com
Abstract: The antihyperglycemic and antilipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of Adansonia digitata bark were investigated in alloxan induced diabetic female (Charles foster) rats. Two groups of diabetic rats (n=6) were administered orally with 250 and 500 mg/ kg bw doses of Adansonia digitata bark extract and one group of diabetic animals were administered with Glipizide (500 µg/kg bw) as standard, for seven consecutive days. Both the doses of bark extract were found to be hypoglycaemic as they decreased plasma glucose levels by 26.7% and 35.9 % and increased glycogenesis by 11.3% and 32 % respectively. These doses also significantly decreased plasma and hepatic lipid profiles (p<0.001). These observations indicate that the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Adansonia digitata possesses both antidiabetic as well as hypolipidemic effects on type I diabetic animals.
Key words: Antidiabetic, Hypolipidemic, Adansonia digitata
18. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1883-1890 (2009)
Evidence of the involvement of prostaglandin E2 in different cellular activities during epimorphic regeneration
Suresh, B., Sharma, P. and Desai, I.
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda,
Vadodara- 390 002, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Cell: 9227612311
Abstract: Prostaglandins are required for cellular proliferation and involved in various stages of myogenesis during regeneration. In the current study the upstream modulator of PGE2 - the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) was targeted. The animals were administrated with Etoricoxib, a COX-2 specific inhibitor and the effect of the drug on various phases of regeneration was evaluated by following the changes in the histological profiles of the regenerate. Synthesis of prostaglandins during inflammation has a critical role in vascular cell proliferation (angiogenesis). In the treated animals VEGF, a key regulator of angiogenesis, was found to be down regulated. Moreover, a treatment induced alteration in myogenic proteins (desmin and myosin) too was evident. Further, the application of COX-2 inhibitor in lizards resulted in a decrease in the synthetic activities of the cells especially of the apical epithelial cap. The PGE2 therefore, plays an important role in the formation of blastemal cells and subsequently regulate the progression of epimorphic regeneration.
Key words: Prostaglandin E2, Epimorphic regeneration
19. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1891-1897 (2009)
Possible role of glycated complement proteins in progression of diabetic nephropathy
Mistry, K., Sharma, S. and Kalia, K.
BRD School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120.
E. mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy has emerged as the single largest cause of chronic renal failure and leads to medical burden of end stage renal disease. The present study was conducted to evaluate serum protein glycation and its effect on complement fixation activity and antigen antibody reaction in Type 2 and Type 1 diabetic patients without or with nephropathy along with healthy control individuals. A positive correlation between fructosamine and lipid bound sialic acid was observed in Type 2 and Type 1 diabetic patients without nephropathy (R2 =0.509, 0.621) and with Type 2 and Type 1 diabetic nephropathy patients (R2 = 0.504, 0.0.663). A significant increase in the glycation of serum proteins was observed in all the studied groups as compared to the control. Type 1 diabetic patients without and with nephropathy showed 20 to 40 % higher levels of glycated proteins as compared to the patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus of respective groups. The complement fixation activity of diabetic serum was higher than normal healthy individuals, where the patients with Type 2 and Type 1 diabetic nephropathy showed 128 % and 135 % higher binding respectively than with their respective group of patients with diabetes alone. The immuno-reactivity of IgG with anti-IgG was reduced in diabetic patients than normal healthy individuals, which was further decreased by 58 % and 80 % in Type 2 diabetic and Type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy than with their respective group of patients with diabetes alone. This study reveals that excessive glycation of complement proteins may increase the complement binding efficiency in diabetes, which may have a role in the development of diabetic nephropathy and the instability of immune complexes may lead to decreased immunity of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients.
Key words: Glycated complement proteins, Diabetic nephropathy
20. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1899-1902 (2009)
Antioxidant effect of Adiantum capillus veneris linn. on human lymphocyte : An in vitro study
Department of Zoology/Biotechnology, Govt.. V.Y.T.P.G. Autonomous College, Durg 491 001.
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Free radicals induce damage due to lipid peroxidation in biomembranes and DNA leading to a number of diseases. Antioxidants neutralize the effect of free radicals through different ways and may prevents the body from various disease. The present study evaluates the antioxidant potential of leaf extract of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Incubation of peripheral blood lymphocytes with 100 µM H2O2 for 2 hours significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased the levels of glutathione and the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx). Pretreatment with plant leaves extract for 18 hours could effectively inhibit lipid peroxidation and enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content significantly. The results indicate that this may be due to its direct action in scavenging free radicals and thereby modulating the antioxidant defence system.
Key words: Adiantum capillus veneris Linn., Human lymphocyte
21. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1903-1907 (2009)
A novel ayurvedic medicine- Asokarishtam in the treatment of letrozole induced PCOS in rat
Sasikala, S. L. and Shamila, S.
Reproductive Endocrinology Laboratory, Centre for Marine Science & Technology, Manonmaniam
Sundaranar University, Marina campus, Rajakkamangalam 629502, Tamil Nadu.
E. mail: email@example.com<
Abstract : A novel herbal formulation, asokarishtam is being reported for the first time in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome PCOS, a fast spreading infertility disorder. Rats were initially induced to develop PCOS by injecting letrozole. The induction of PCOS in rats was checked through vaginal smear analysis and further confirmed by sex steroid hormone assay. PCOS induced rats missed five estrus cycle as compared with control within 28 days. Very high level of testosterone (1146.22pg/ml) and lower levels of estrogen (40.23pg/ml) and progesterone (3.66ng/ml) titer ensured PCOS induction. One group of PCOS induced rats were treated with clomiphene citrate, the only widely used allopathic medicine available for curing PCOS and the other group with ayurvedic medicine. Surprisingly similar to (at lower doses) and even better (in higher dose) than clomiphene citrate , the ayurvedic medicine was able to correct the estrus cycle in PCOS induced rats and resulted in the development of growing follicle , graffian follicle and corpus luteum culminating in ovulation. Ovarian and uterine weight (0.230g and 0.846g respectively., P<0.001) which increased due to PCOS induction returned to normalcy ( 0.143g and 0.422 g respectively., P<001) after asokarishtam treatment. Not only the testosterone levels decreased (169.26pg/ml, P<0.001) but the estrogen (61.77pg/ml, P<0.001) and progesterone levels (7.37ng/ml, P<0.001) increased after asokarishtam treatment as indicated by ELISA. The results clearly indicate a better PCOS therapeutic capacity of asokarishtam.
Key words: Ayurvedic medicine, Chlomephene citrate, Letrozole induced PCOS in rat
22. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1909-1913 (2009)
Apolipoproteins, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular diseases
Pushpa, N., Anchana Devi, C., Kalavathy, S., Chenniappan, M., Sampath Kumar, P. and Vijaya Anand, A.
Department of Biochemistry, M.I.E.T. Arts and Science College, Tiruchirappalli 620 007, Tamilnadu.
E. mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered to be a multifactorial disease. In recent years apolipoproteins, reflecting atherogenic, have been shown to be superior to conventional lipids in predicting risk and reduction of events in lipid lowering trials. Current guidelines have highlighted the importance of non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol as a predictor of cardiovascular risk. The role of combination of apolipoproteins (A-I and B) and non-HDL cholesterol is however less defined. The present study was designed to evaluate the association of apolipoproteins, lipid profile with the prognosis of CVD. Ninety patients were recruited for the study, of which forty-five belong to control and forty-five had cardiovascular disease (test group). Apolipoproteins and lipid profile were recorded among the study population. Significant variability was observed between control and test group. These findings, jointly with prospective studies add strength to the proposal that apolipoproteins and non-HDL cholesterol may be used in population screening to identify individuals at increased cardiovascular risk.
Key words: Apolipoprotein, Non-HDL cholesterol, Cardiovascular disease
23. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1915-1919 (2009)
Lipid fluctuations in women saliva during menstrual cycle
Alagendran, S., Archunan, G., Neelamathi , E., Anusha, R., Miller Samson, S. and Puspha, N.
Department of Animal Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu
E. Mail: alagan999@Yahoo.co.in<
Abstract: The present study was designed to identify the lipid and its metabolites in the menstrual cycle of women in order to detect the exact time of ovulation. The human saliva was extracted with 2 ml of chloroform and methanol mixture (2:1) ratio, v/v) and the lipid was isolated using Folch et al. (1957) method. Total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, and VLDL-C were measured in 50 women during menstrual cycle periods of human saliva using UV- Spectrophotometer. Among these total cholesterol, phospholipids and HDL-C were highly significant during ovulatory phase, which was due to hormone metabolic changes in the period of menstrual cycle. The hormone assay such as Luteinising hormone spiked formation was exposed in total cholesterol and phospholipids were implicated in throughout the cycle shows uppermost during ovulatory phase which is the precursor of the steroid hormone. The result revealed that the total cholesterol and phospholipids were considered as testing the saliva instead of blood is a noninvasive loom and it can be used as the biomarker for ovulation detection.
Key words: Women saliva, Lipids, Luteinising hormone, Menstrual cycle
24. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1921-1924 (2009)
Free radical scavenging activity of Lantana aculeata root extract in hyperlipidemic rats
Vinoth Kumar, K., Dawood Sharief, S., Rajkumar, R., Ilango, B., Nausheen Dawood., Chamundeeswari, D. and Sukumar, E.
School of Environmental Sciences, Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, The New College,
Chennai 600 014, E-mail: email@example.com<
Abstract: Lantana aculeata is a common weed that grows abundantly in many parts of India. The aerial part of the plant is reported to be toxic while the roots were found to be non- toxic when tested in albino rats. The alcoholic extract of the roots showed a significant hypolipidemic activity in normal rats. Hence the roots were studied for their free radical scavenging potential in hyperlipidemic animals by administering the alcoholic extract (LAR) in doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg for 30 days. The levels of LPO, non-enzymatic antioxidant (TRG) and enzymatic antioxidants viz. SOD, CAT and GPx that showed changes in diseased condition were reverted back to near normal values by LAR extract treatment of plasma, liver and heart tissues. The presence of flavonoids besides oleanolic acid in large amounts might have caused the observed effect.
Key words: Lantana aculeata, Free radicals, Hyperlipidemia
25. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(2) 1925-1927 (2009)
Evaluation of antihyperglycemic potential of Helicteres isora in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats
Boopathy Raja, A., Elanchezhiyan, C., Manoharan, S., Suresh, K., Balakrishnan, S. and Sethupathy, S.
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, E. mail: firstname.lastname@example.org<
Abstract: Present study has been carried out to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of Helicteres isora ethanolic fruit extract (HiEFet) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Different doses of HiEFet (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg body weight) were assessed to find out the effective dose for the treatment of diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect of HiEFet was assessed by measuring the status of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and plasma insulin levels in diabetic rats. The effect of HiEFet was also compared with the reference drug glibenclamide (600 µg/kg body weight). Oral administration of HiEFet at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight showed potent antihyperglycemic effect and improved glycemic control mechanism in diabetic rats. Also the antidiabetic effect of HiEFet at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight was much comparable to that of glibenclamide. The present study concludes that HiEFet has potent antihyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and thus further studies are warranted to isolate the antihyperglycemic principles from Helicteres isora fruits.
Key words: Diabetes mellitus, Helicteres isora, Streptozotocin