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Pharmacology & Therapy » Past Abstracts
Influence of different levels and sources of dietary proteins on growth and biochemical attributes in fluoride toxicated rats

1. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 1-6 (2009)

Influence of different levels and sources of dietary proteins on growth and biochemical attributes in fluoride toxicated rats

Patel, B.G.,  Dhaduk, J.J., Patel, I.N., Vyas, S.R., Patel, N.V. and. Sail, S.S.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, ASPEE College of Home Science, Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar 385 506, E. mail:

Abstract: Twenty five female albino rats were exposed to dietary fluoride toxicity (250 ppm NaF for six weeks). The toxic effects as reflected through growth attributes and altered biochemical profile in general, were reduced when the toxicated rats were fed on diet with 15 % protein level, where as these were more severe for protein deficient diet with 5% protein level. The 15% protein level significantly increased liver and plasma protein and vitamin C content in liver and decreased LDH activity, tibial lipid and bone fluoride. Similarly, the wheat with bengalgram (80 : 20) had significantly more beneficial effects followed by casein than cheese source. Thus, the present findings revealed that increased intake of qualitative dietary protein can be useful in reducing toxic effects of fluoride.

Key words: Fluoride toxicity, Proteins, Biochemical profile

 2. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 7-12  (2009)

 Effect of respirable textile particulate matter on animal model: Rat

 Sanandam  Monica,  R.

Department of Biotechnology Engineering, KIT’S College, Kolhapur 416234, India

Abstract: Industries operating the machines in enclosed spaces creates a new microenvironment.  Such an environment is much more dangerous for human health  in factories handling the synthetic and natural fibers.  Person exposed to cotton or flax dust may develop a series of acute and chronic symptoms categorized as the response to single or multiple exposures, to relatively high cotton dust concentration which results into mill fever and later into byssinosis. Cotton textile industry is the single largest industry employing lacs of workers, but the powerloom sector of this industry is operating with adverse working conditions without any research or innovation. In present contribution, rats were  exposed to cotton dust in powerloom sectors for several days and a significant increase in spleen size was observed. Histologic observations showed hypertrophy of red pulp, congestion of venous sinuses, blood clots in trabecular artery and vein, few lymphatic nodules with germinating center, reduced or atrophied white pulp, increased reticulum cells and macrophages number. Hemosiderin was seen in reticulum cells. Bone marrow showed increased erythroblasts, reticulocytes, myelocytes, megakaryoblasts and megakaryocytes. The hematological profile revealed increased hematocrit, red and white cells count. Decreased platelets count, hemoglobin gram percentage, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and anisocytosis and pikilocytosis of RBCS.    Serum protein profile showed increase á and â- globulins and decreased total proteins and albumin level. The experimental data indicate that respirable particulate matter induces several significant structural and functional alterations in the body of rats. Our findings for spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood provide evidence of extrapulmonary activity of inhaled particles in the textile environment.

Key words:   Textile environment, Spleen, Bone marrow, Blood,  Endotoxin,

 3. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 13-18 (2009)

Antidiabetic efficacy of Tamarindus indica seeds in alloxan induced diabetic rats

Manoharan, S., Chellammal, A., Linsa Mary, A., Vasudevan, K., Balakrishnan, S. and Ranezab Anishkumar, P.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608002, Tamil Nadu. E mail:

Abstract: The antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds [TiASet (500 mg/Kg b.w. po)] was evaluated in alloxan (150mg/Kg b.w. ip) induced diabetic rats by analyzing the status of blood glucose, plasma insulin and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. The present study also assesses the antilipid peroxidative potential of TiASet by measuring the status of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Vitamin E, Vitamin C and reduced glutathione (GSH)] during diabetic conditions. Oral administration of TiASet significantly brought back the status of above mentioned biochemical variables to near normal range. The antidiabetic effect of TiASet was also comparable to that of glibenclamide, the reference drug. The present study thus concludes that TiASet has potent antidiabetic effect, which is possibly due to its antilipid peroxidative, antioxidant potential and modulating effect on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Key words: Tamarindus indica, Diabetes mellitus, Alloxan

 4. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 19-23 (2009)

Modifying effects of metformin on circadian pattern of blood glucose, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidants in alloxan induced diabetic rats

Manoharan, S.,   Mohan, R., Balakrishnan, S., Vellaichamy, L.,  Vasudevan, K., Linsa Mary, A. and Baskaran, N.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University,
Annamalainagar 608002, Tamil Nadu.  E. mail:

Abstract: Aim of the study was to investigate the modifying effects of metformin on circadian pattern of blood glucose, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidants in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in overnight fasted Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared solution of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/Kg bw) in physiological saline. The blood glucose level and the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were assayed using specific colorimetric methods. Blood glucose level reached a peak at 23:19 hours in diabetic rats. The day-night rhythm of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidants were also significantly altered in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of metformin to diabetic animals at 23:19 hours restored the circadian characteristics of blood glucose, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidants to near normal pattern in alloxan induced diabetic rats. It is concluded from present study that oral administration of metformin to diabetic animals at 23:19 hours peak glucose level maintained the blood glucose homeostasis throughout the day.

Key words: Diabetes mellitus, Lipid peroxidation, Antioxidants, Metformin

5. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 25-28 (2009)

Amylase activity in salivary glands of D-galactose stressed mice and protection by glycowithanolides

 Mote, R.N., Pawar B.K. and Pillai, M.M.

Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur  416 004,
E. Mail:

Abstract: In the present study the protective effect of glycowithanolides on D-galactose stressed mice in terms of amylase activity and protein content in three major salivary glands was investigated. For this study five to six month old male mice (Mus musculus) were grouped in to four groups viz. control  group (A) , received 0.5 ml sterile water per day for 20 days. D-galactose  group (B) received 5 % 0.5ml D-galactose per day for 20 days. D-galactose + centrophenoxine  group (C) received 5 % 0.5ml Dg along with centrophenoxine per day for 20 days and D-galactose + glycowithanolides group (D) received 5% 0.5ml D-galactose along with glycowithanolides per day for 20 days. Results indicated that the amylase activity and protein content were reduced in all three major salivary glands of Dg stressed mice (B) as compared with the control (A). But both the values were high in all the three salivary glands of mice received centrophenoxine along with D-galactose. Values were also increased significantly in the salivary glands of mice received glycowithanolides along with D-galactose. These values were higher even when compared with centrophenoxine treated mice. Thus the glycowithanolides of Withania somnifera (WS) is potent natural antioxidant and anti-stressor than synthetic antioxidant centrophenoxine.

Key words: Amylase, D-galactose, Glycowithanolides, Salivary glands

 6. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 29-34 (2009)

Inhibition of quorum sensing controlled phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using protein produced by an endophyte from Albizzia lebbeck

Satish Kumar, R.  and  Karthikeyan, J.

Department of Biotechnology,  D. G. Vaishnav College, Arumbakam, Chennai 600 106, 
E. mail:

Abstract: Quorum sensing refers to bacterial cell to cell communication and is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation in opportunistic pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Intracellular protein extracts from Bacillus isolates were found to quench the induction of autoinducer, acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) secreted by these virulent strains. This mechanism further influenced a drastic reduction in quorum sensing phenotypes that coordinate the virulence factors, mainly LasA protease production and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. The genomic DNA of these Bacillus strains produced a 900bp amplification fragment when gene specific primers for aiiA (HSLactonase) were used.

Key words: Quorum sensing, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, LasA protease

7. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 35-38 (2009)

Effect of Tadalafil on sexual behavior in female rats

Aswar Urmila, M.  and  Bodhankar Subhash, L.

Department of Pharmacology, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Erandawane, Paud Road,
Pune 411 038, India. E. mail:

Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of tadalafil and sildenafil on sexual behavior in female rats. Female Wister rats (180 ± 10 g) showing estrous phase were selected. The rats were divided into three groups (n=6). Group I was given vehicle, group II was administered tadalafil (10 mg/kg p.o.) and group III was given sildenafil (10 mg/kg p.o.). Drugs were administered to female rats one hour before copulatory behavior studies. They were placed individually with male rat of proven fertility in a Plexiglass chamber. The female sexual behavior was observed for 30 min. Our study indicated that tadalafil and sildenafil both significantly decreased darting,  hopping and lordosis latencies. Both increased darting hopping, lordosis frequencies, anogenital grooming and licking behavior. Tadalafil was superior to sildenafil in increasing lordosis duration. The results obtained in our study differentiated the effects of tadalafil than sildenafil especially in consumatory phase of sexual behavior. Weak effect of sildenafil in improving lordosis frequency and duration observed in present study may be correlated with failure of sildenafil in clinical trials.

Key words: Female sexual dysfunction, Lordosis, Tadalafil

8. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 39-43  (2009)

Modulatory effects of centrophenoxine on various regions of brain in D-galactose induced
aged female mice

Walvekar, M.V.,  Pillai, M.M.,  Bhopale, L.P., and Methe, K.N.

Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004.
E. mail:

Abstract: Three months old female mice were ovariectomised and 4 days thereafter the animals were separated into six groups I) ovariectomised mice, II) ovariectomised + D-galactose treated mice, III) ovariectomised + D-galactose + Tween 80 treated mice, IV) ovariectomised  + D-galactose + centrophenoxine treated mice, V) ovariectomised + D-galactose treated + olive oil injected mice VI) ovariectomised + D-galactose treated + estrogen injected mice. All treatments were done for 15 days. After experimental period the mice all groups were sacrificed. Brains were dissected out and cerebral cortex, hippocampus, corpora qudrigemina and cerebellum were separated and estimated for  protein concentration, lipid peroxidation and fluorescence products.  Study shows that in group I and II the protein concentration in foresaid brain regions were decreased, while lipid peroxidation and fluorescence products were increased as compared to control. In group IV and VI protein concentration in the brain regions was increased, while lipid peroxidation and fluorescence product were decreased compared to group II mice. These results revealed that centrophenoxine has modulatory effects on brain in D-galactose induced aged female mice.

Key words:  Aging, Centrophenoxine, Ovariectomy.

9. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 45-50 (2009)
Anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Capparis sepiaria Linn. in wistar strain rats

Rajesh, P., Selvamani, P., Latha, S., Saraswathy, A. and Rajesh Kannan, V.

Department of Microbiology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024.
E. mail:

Abstract: The study was intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Capparis sepiaria (Capparidaceae) (EECS) in Wistar rats. Phytochemical analysis was carried out by using standard methodology. The plant has alkaloids, amino acids, glycosides, reducing sugars, saponins, starch, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. The anti-inflammatory activity was carried out in different methods such as carrageenan, cotton pellet and croton oil induced oedema. Different doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg/i.p.) of EECS were injected to rats and the results were compared with standard drug indomethacin (10 mg/kg). Paw volume was measured using digital plethysmometer.  The C. sepiaria extract showed the maximum inhibitory activity at 300 mg/kg/i.p. in a dose dependent manner. These inhibitions were statistically significant (p<0.01-0.001). These results indicate that C. sepiaria extract is a bioactive agent and having significant results in anti-inflammatory action by inhibition of the exudation, and leukocytes recruitment into the inflamed tissues.

Key words: Capparis sepiaria; Anti-inflammatory.

   10. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 51-53 (2009)

Anti-inflammatory effect of acetone extract of Pterocarpus santalinus in albino rat

Nashi, V.M., Methe, K.N. , Kasabe, S.V. and Kanase, A.A.

Cell Biology Section, Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur - 416 004
E mail:

Abstract: Acetone extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus stem was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using paw-edema model induced by formaldehyde injection in male albino rat. Different concentrations of acetone extract (25 %, 50 %, 75 %, and 100 %) were tested against inflammation produced by 0.25ml of 0.01% formaldehyde in male rat within 30 minutes. Dose dependent increase was observed in oedema diminishing. Application of 25 % and 50 % extracts brought the oedema to normal within 150 minutes from application while 75 % and 100 % acetone extracts suppresses the edema at 120 min from application. The edema was completely diminished and normal status of the paw was achieved. The results are discussed with the bio-chemical components of Pterocarpus santalinus.

Key words: Pterocarpus santalinus, Paw-edema

11. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 55-57 (2009)

Evaluation of radical scavenging  effect of Limonia acidissima

Saraswathi, U. and Nithya, N.

Department of Biochemistry, P. S. G.  College of Arts & Science, Coimbatore 641 014, Tamilnadu.  E. mail:

Abstract: The present investigation was designed to evaluate the radical scavenging effect of hydroethanolic extract of Limonia acidissima.  Radical scavenging assays {1, 1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide} and non-radical scavenging assay (H2O2) were performed. The scavenging activity of the plant extract was tested at different concentrations (10 100, 500, 1000 µg/ ml). The maximum scavenging activity of extract against DPPH (69.29 %), superoxide radical (60.78 %), hydroxyl radical (77.81 %), nitric oxide (52.57 %) and H2 O2 (57.93 %) was determined and the IC50 values were compared to the standard, ascorbate. The ability of the extract to scavenge the free radicals indicate that this plant could be used as a new source of antioxidant for the treatment of various diseases.

Key words: Limonia acidissima, radical scavenging, IC50 value, Ascorbate

 12. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 59-62 (2009)

Comparative antimicrobial efficacy of ethyl acetate and ethanol leaf extracts of Aristolochia bracteata Retz

Nagarajan, K., Dutta, S., Singhal, S., Ruckmani, K, Valarmathi, R. and Umadevi, G.

Division of Bio-Medicinal Chemistry R and D Laboratory, Department  of Pharmacy, IIMT Collegeof Medical Sciences, ‘O’ Pocket, Ganga Nagar, Mawana Road, Meerut 250001,
E. mail:

Abstract: The present study was carried out to compare the antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of Aristolochia bracteata Retz. prepared in two different solvents. The coarse dried leaf powder of Aristolochia bracteata was successively extracted with ethyl acetate and ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. Both the extracts were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal properties using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The microorganisms used for antibacterial and antifungal studies were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Ciprofloxacin (1µg/mL) and Clotrimazole (5µg/mL) were used as reference standard. Leaf extracts prepared in both the solvents show antimicrobial activity. Further, ethyl acetate extract was found to be much effective against bacterial and fungal strains as compared to ethanol extract.  

Key words: Aristolochia bracteata, Antimicrobial, Clotrimazole, Ciprofloxacin

13. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 63-70 (2009)

Neuropharmacology of ethanolic extract of Hemidesmus indicus

Shete, R.V. and Bodhankar, S.L.

Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Poona College of Pharmacy, Pune  411038.

Abstract: Hemidesmus indicus (Family: Asclepiadaceae), commonly known as Sarsaparilla, is a widely recognised Indian medicinal plant, used in traditional systems of ayurvedic medicine. The plant shows a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. In present communication the effect of the ethanolic extract of Hemidesmus indicus (HI), administered as single oral doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg p.o. daily for seven days on the locomotor activity, exploratory behaviour, rota rod performance, nootropic activity, analgesic activity, electoconvulsiometer induced convulsions, haloperidol induced catalepsy and sodium nitirite induced respiratory arrest in mice have been studied. The evaluations were carried out on second (acute study) and seventh day (chronic study) after the initiation of dosing schedule. Treatment of mice with ethanolic extract of HI increased the discrimination index in object recognition test and reaction time in hot plate test; potentiated the haloperidol induced catalepsy and increased the duration of onset of death in sodium nitrite induced respiratory arrest in both acute and chronic studies. None of the doses produced any changes in the locomotor activity, rota rod performance, exploratory behaviour and maximum electroshock induced convulsions. In conclusion the plant prominantly tends to possess nootropic and analgesic properties via potenciation of cholinergic and inhibition of dopaminergic transmission.

Key words: Hemidesmus indicus, Motor coordination, Cognition, Convulsions

14. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 71-76 (2009)
Anti-ulcer activity of calcium based Ayurvedic bhasmas and Pishti prepared from marine-sourced animals

Singh, A., Dubey, S.D., Reddy, K.R.C., Patne, S. and Kumar, V.

Pharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology; Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005. E. mail:

Abstract: Bhasma refer to anything inorganic or organic material burnt into ash while Pishti is an Ayurvedic formulation prepared by triturating the drug with the specified liquids and exposing to sun or moonlight. Shankha bhasma, Kapardika bhasma, Muktashukti bhasma, Pravala bhasma, and Pravala pishti are calcium containing Ayurvedic medicines prepared from marine - sourced animals. These bhasmas and pishti were investigated for their protective effects on gastric ulceration in albino rats. Aspirin (200 mg/kg) and ethanol (5 ml/kg) induced gastric lesions in rats were employed in the present study. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) was used as standard anti-ulcer drug for comparison. All the aforementioned bhasmas and pishti were administered (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily as suspension in 0.3 % CMC for seven days. Pretreatment with the four bhasmas and a pishti as well as ranitidine significantly reduced (p<0.01) ulcer index in both models. Histopathological findings further support the observed ulcer protective activity. Gastric mucosal layer was found intact with normal cellular architecture in rats treated with various bhasmas and pishti. Effect of 50 mg/kg of all bhasmas and pishti provided better protection to the gastric mucosa in both models.

Key words: Ayurvedic bhasmas, Pravala pishti, Anti-ulcer

15. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 77-80 (2009)

High frequency multiple shoots induction through micropropagation of Chickpea var. “heena”

Patel, R.M.,  Pattanayak, A., Jain, P.K., Jaat, R.S., Srinivasan, S. and Shah, R.R.

Department of Biotechnology,  Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450.
E mail:

Abstract: A protocol for whole plant regeneration of Cicer arientinum L. var. “Heena” through induction of high multiple shoots has been developed. A comparison data of two types of explants showed that half cotyledon with decapitated embryo axis performed better than decapitated embryo axis for establishment and induction of shoots, number of shoots produced per explant and length of shoot. Establishment of cotyledon with decapitated embryo axis was reported cent per on MS medium fortified with BAP (0.5 to 1.0 mg/l) alone or in combination with IAA (0.001 mg/l). Maximum number of shoots/explant was produced on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0.5 mg/l), however at the end of 1st reculture showed that culture obtained on  MS medium fortified with 0.5 mg/l BAP was transferred on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l BAP along with  IAA (0.001 mg/l) registered maximum number of shoots/explant. Among the different root inducing treatments, the maximum number of roots/shoot and length of root were noticed on half MS containing 0.1 mg/l IBA. In vitro regenerated plantlets were tried for hardening in different potting mixtures. The maximum plantlets were survived in soil + leaf mould (1:1v/v) up to 10 days. Then, all the plantlets were died within 15 days. This may be due to vitrification.

Key words: In vitro, Chickpea, Regeneration

16. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 81-86 (2009)

Osteoprotective effect of Litsea glutinosa in ovariectomized wistar rats

Parikh, P., Suresh, B. and Rangrez, A.

Division of Phytotherapeutics, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University
of Baroda, Vadodara 390002. E mail:

Abstract: Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction in bone mass with possible alteration in bone architecture and an increased risk of fractures. Various pharmacological interventions are aimed at inhibiting bone turnover and preventing osteoporosis. Litsea glutinosa is a plant commonly used in the traditional Indian medicines for the treatment of osteoporosis. This study is aimed at validating the osteoprotective effect, if any, of this plant in ovariectomized Wistar rats Three months old female Wistar rats were either sham operated or ovariectomized and fed food mixed with L. glutinosa plant bark powder or with normal powdered feed till the end of the study. Our results indicated that L. glutinosa have bone protective effect in a dose dependent manner. It decreased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in serum as well as bone and also inhibited tartarate resistance phosphatase (TrACP). Other biochemical markers indicated that L. glutinosa have positive effect on bone remodeling. Histology of cancellous bone reaffirmed the protective role of this plant product against osteoporosis. The present data suggest that L. glutinosa bark powder is a promising phytoremedial agent for the treatment of osteoporosis.

Key words: Litsea glutinosa , Osteoporosis

17. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 87- 89 (2009)

Particulate matter (pm) exposure induced transient hyperglycemia in rats

Sanandam, M.R.

Department of Biotechnology, Engineering, KIT’S College, Kolhapur-416234
PH.9850271679, E-mail:

Abstract : Acute and chronic exposure to airborne pollutants, such as solid particulate matter (PM) causes severe disturbances in the homeostatic mechanisms. The maintenance of the blood glucose level within the normal range is governed by liver, Kidneys, endocrine glands and other tissues that impose their regulatory effect. Blood glucose levels either below or above the normal limits are expression of interruption of the hormonal and physiological controls that govern normoglycemia. These environmental factors in textile microenvironment bring about changes in these hormonal and physiological triggers and hence cause alterations in the blood glucose level of rats which is the subject of heightened interest.

Key words: Particulate matter, Transient hyperglycemia

18. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 2: 91-96 (2009)

Studies on anti-acne activity of Pitika mardhini

Burade, K.B.  Chopade, A.R.  and  Kuchekar, B.S.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, Government College of Pharmacy, Karad 415124,
E. mail:

Abstract: Acne is one of the most common skin conditions and accounts for more than 30% of all visits to dermatologists, since the conventionally acne therapy has limitations in modern medicine; herbal remedies can offer an effective alternative therapy for acne vulgaris. The purpose of the present study was to asses the clinical effectiveness of Pitika Mardhini an herbal anti-acne formulation. The identified patients were treated with Pitika mardhini at least two times a day for a period of four to five weeks. Twelve patients completed the study. The mean reduction of the acne severity grades (Burton grade) was 0.75 ± 0.2176 at the final assessment point. The degree of improvement of acne was found to be good by patients as well as independent observers. Four weeks after the treatments with the Pitika mardhini, there was a decrease in lesion count from baseline, as well as a significant improvement of facial complexion. Based on the concept that herbal plants can be useful remedies for the treatment of skin disease and the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that Pitika mardhini could be used in clinical treatment of acne.

Key words: Pitika mardhini, Acne and clinical effectiveness.

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